TRIPURAINFO

Water Supply and Rural Sanitation

The Drinking Water & Sanitation wing of Public Works Department, Government of Tripura is responsible to provide adequate & sustainable drinking water supply in each household and also to ensure better sanitation system through NBA in the State.
The main objective of the department is to enhance quality of life of the people by providing sustainable safe water and sanitation facilities and services along with promoting hyiegene practices among the people.


Water Supply

PWD(DWS) has set the objective of providing safe and adequate drinking water to all households in all the habitations without loosing much time. For this purpose a range of schemes to tap both surface and ground water are under implementation which include, surface water treatment plants, deep tube wells small bore tube wells, spot sources like ordinary hand pump(OHP), mark-II/III, RCC well, sanitary well, masonry well etc. The excessive iron content in ground water poses a major challenge to water supply system in Tripura. The department has give priority to install iron removal plants with all deep tubewels.
As on 01.04.2014, out of 8132 rural habitations, 4363 habitations were fully covered & 3698 habitations were partially covered on quantity basis. On quality basis, 1948 habitations were fully covered & 1402 habitations were partially covered.

Rural Sanitation

Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) earlier known as Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) is a comprehensive programme to ensure sanitation facilities in rural areas with broader goal to eradicate the practice of open defecation. NBA as a part of reform principles was initiated in 1999 when Central Rural Sanitation Programme was restructured making it demand driven and people centered. It follows a principle of "low to no subsidy" where a nominal subsidy in the form of incentive is given to rural poor households for construction of toilets. NBA gives strong emphasis on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Capacity Building and Hygiene Education for effective behaviour change with involvement of PRIs, CBOs, and NGOs etc. The key intervention areas are Individual household latrines (IHHL), School Sanitation and Hygiene Education (SSHE), Community Sanitary Complex, Anganwadi toilets supported by Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) and Production Centers (PCs). The main goal is to eradicate the practice of open defecation by 2017. To give fillip to this endeavor, GOI has launched Nirmal Gram Puraskar to recognize the efforts in terms of cash awards for fully covered PRIs and those individuals and institutions who have contributed significantly in ensuring full sanitation coverage in their area of operation. The project is being implemented in rural areas taking district as a unit of implementation.

3. The brief status of PWD(DWS) as on 1st April,2014 is presented in the following table:

A. Water Supply:
Item As On 01-04-2014
Rural
Urban
Total
Deep tube well in operation ( in Nos.)
1301
124
1425
Overhead reservoir commissioned (in Nos.)
79
52
131
Iron removal plant commissioned (in Nos.)
606
59
665
Pipeline laid (in km)
8296.20
1344.62
9640.82
Urban surface water treatment plants (in Nos.)
15
Rural surface water treatment plants (in Nos.)
29
Small Bore Tube Well (in Nos)
2741
21
2762
Domestic connection (in Nos.)
8553
50376
58929
Road side stand posts (in Nos.)
32592
6342
38934
Functioning spot sources like as Mark-II/III/ OHP Ring/Massonry/Sanitary Well/Spring  water sources etc. (in Nos) in rural areas 
25934
Population covered ( in Nos.)
22,88,308
7,03,293
29,91,601
B. Total Sanitation campaign:
Item  On 01-04-2014
Individual house Hold Latrine (BPL)   455437
Individual house Hold Latrine (APL)   160034
School Toilet   6650
Balwadi/ Angwanadi Toilet   7527
Sanitary complex   295

Providing quality water supply and proper sanitation system to the community is the priority sector of the government and accordingly the DWS wing of PWD is committed to face the challenges to ensure better satisfaction of the consumers so far community water supply system and rural sanitation as well as total sanitation campaign are concerned. The list of committed work is huge and without proper community participation in both urban and rural areas it is not possible to maintain such schemes efficiently and smoothly. It is, therefore, the responsibility of all concern to understand the importance of the sector and to co-operate the DWS wing of PWD for creation and utilization of sustainable water supply system including sanitation system in the state.

The earlier State Public Works Department (Public Health Engineering) has been renamed as Public Works Department (Drinking Water Supply) and continued with the responsibility to provide adequate and sustainable drinking water and also to ensure better sanitation system in the State. The underground water resources through sinking of deep tube wells in rural areas and surface resources in urban areas are utilised for creation of sustainable pipe water supply system in the State.

Providing safe and adequate drinking water to all households in all habitations without loosing much time is one of the main objectives of State Planning. For this purpose a range of schemes to tap both surface and ground water are under implementation which include, surface water treatment plants, deep tube wells, small bore tube wells, spot sources like ordinary hand pump(OHP), mark-II/III, RCC well, sanitary well, masonry well etc. The excessive iron content in ground water poses a major challenge to water supply system in Tripura. The department has given priority to install iron removal plants with all deep tube wells.

The State PWD (Drinking Water & Sanitation) Department has attached priority in construction of deep tube well based surface water supply schemes since inception. However, during the last four - five years a good number of rural surface water supply schemes including high capacity as well as mini treatment plants are given priority in remote rural areas, particularly where drilling of deep tube wells are not feasible even after resistively survey and also where population growth is high. Since 1998, priority is also attached through introduction of surface water supply schemes in all urban areas.

The State PWD (Drinking Water & Sanitation) Department is also considering introduction of deeper drilling rig machines for sinking of DTWs particularly in hilly areas where suitable water bearing strata is available at much lower depth. The Department has also attached top priority in installation of Iron Removal Plants (IRPs) since the underground water is mostly infested with high iron content. The Department has taken-up construction of innovative small capacity water supply schemes based on compact water treatment plant, small bore deep tube wells, horizontal roughening filters (HRS) cum slow sand filter (SSF) etc. The Department has general target to undertake substantial works in TSP areas.

The State Government has given priority for construction of number of rural surface water supply schemes including high capacity as well as mini treatment plants for remote rural areas, especially where drilling of deep tube wells are not feasible.

The Public Health Engineering wing of State Public Works Department is the nodal department for survey of status of drinking water supply in rural habitations of the State. The DWS wing of PWD is also responsible for water supply through tankers in case of disruption in normal water supply and also to serve occasional gathering of people. In addition to normal activities, DWS is also executing huge numbers of deposit work of different departments and executing the work of construction of deep tube wells under sector reform. As of now, about 80 deep tube wells under the head of deposit work/ sector reform have been executed by the DWS.

As on 1st April 2014, out of 8132 rural habitations, 4363 habitations were fully covered & 3698 habitations were partially covered on quantity basis. On quality basis, 1948 habitations were fully covered & 1402 habitations were partially covered.

The following Table shows the status of water supply in the State as on 1st April 2014.

A. Water Supply:
                Item As On 01-04-2014
   Rural  Urban Total
 Deep tube well in operation ( in Nos.)    1301   124   1425
Overhead reservoir commissioned (in Nos.)      79   52   131
Iron removal plant commissioned (in Nos.)    606   59   665
Pipeline laid (in km)  8296.20   1344.62     9640.82
Urban surface water treatment plants (in Nos.)   15
Rural surface water treatment plants (in Nos.)   29
Ground water based treatment plants(in Nos.)   02
Small Bore Tube Well (in Nos)        2741   21   2762
Domestic connection (in Nos.)           8553  50376  58929
Road side stand posts (in Nos.)  32592  6342  38934
Functioning spot sources like as Mark-II/III/ OHP Ring/Massonry/Sanitary Well/Spring  water sources etc. (in Nos) in rural areas    25934
Population covered ( in Nos.)  22,88,308  7,03,293  29,91,601
                                                            Source: - PWD (DWS) Department, Trip

The following table depicts the households main source of drinking water based on Census-2011 released data.

Sl.No.
Households by main source of lighting
Tripura
Percentage
Total Rural Urban Tripura All India
01. Tap water   279,789 152,888 126,901 33.2 43.5
02. Tap water from treated source 171,167  69,003 102,164 20.3 32
03. Tap water from un-treated source 108,622   83,885 24,737 12.9 11.6
04. Well 230,576   215,219 15,357 27.4 11
05. Covered well 24,343   21,196 3,147 2.9 1.6
06. Un-covered well 206,233   194,023 12,210 24.5 9.4
07. Hand pump 152,365 102,071   50,294 18.1 33.5
08. Tubewell/ Borehole 136,980   98,270 38,710 16.3 8.5
09. Spring 15,960   15,769 191 1.9 0.5
10. River/ Canal 15,414 14,954 460 1.8 0.6
 11. Tank/ Pond/ Lake 4,075   3,772 303 0.5 0.8
 12. Other sources 7,622     4,836    2,786 0.9 1.5
Source: - Census of India, 2011

State Government has taken various initiatives to promote rural sanitation coverage at household, community school, anganwadi etc. levels and also promote hygiene practices. Due to series of initiatives taken in this regard, Tripura has been one of the few States having very high sanitation coverage.
Earlier four districts of Tripura have been brought under Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and have taken all measures to further expand sanitation coverage including quality of facilities at household, school, anganwadi & community level which has significantly reduced incidences of diarrhoea even during lean season. Further, hygiene behavior is being promoted focusing on hand washing before eating and after defecation and also safe handling and storage of drinking water.

The following Table shows the status of sanitation campaign in the State as on 1st April 2014.

  i) Individual household latrine for BPL.                                                      4,50,072
  ii) Individual household latrine (BPL)                                                        1,56,856
  iii) School toilet                                                                                     6,173
  iv) Balwadi/ Angwanadi Toilet                                                                  6,654
  v) Sanitary complex                                                                                 249
Source: - PWD (DWS) Department, Tripura.

State achieved well in terms of birth rate, death rate as well as infant mortality rate in compare to national average. However, specialist health care services need to be augmented for quality life.

Setting-up of two successive Medical Colleges would definitely improve the quality treatment in the State since a good number of the patient are going outside the State for better treatment.

Moreover, attempts require to be taken for providing safe drinking water, sanitation as well as proper disposal of water to reduce the infection deseases especially in rural and hilly areas.

Providing quality water supply and proper sanitation system to the community is the priority sector of the government and accordingly the DWS wing of PWD is committed to face the challenges to ensure better satisfaction of the consumers so far community water supply system and rural sanitation as well as total sanitation campaign are concerned. The list of committed work is huge and without proper community participation in both urban and rural areas it is not possible to maintain such schemes efficiently and smoothly. It is, therefore, the responsibility of all concern to understand the importance of the sector and to co-operate the DWS wing of PWD for creation and utilization of sustainable water supply system including sanitation system in the state.