TRIPURAINFO

Agriculture Scenario of Tripura


Total cultivable land

Tripura has a total cultivable land of 2,80,000 hectares and irrigation potential of 1,27,000 hectares. Out of the available water resources 79,000 hectares can be brought under assured irrigation through surface water and 48,000 hectares through ground water. Total potential created upto 31st March, 2014 was 1,12,806 hectares.

Operational holdings

The activities of agriculture and allied sector in the State by and large are in the hands of small and marginal cultivators. The data of last Agriculture Census report, 2010-11 reveals the fact clearly as follows.


Holdings:
i) Number of marginal holding (Below 1.0 hec.) 2,47,380(82%)
ii) Number of small holding (1.0 hec- 2.0 hec.) 40,409 (13%)
iii) Number of medium and large holding (above 2.0 hec.) 13,238 (5%)

Area Operated:
i)
Marginal holding (in hec)
80,513 (44%)
ii)
Small holding (in hec)
55,879 (31%) 
iii)
Total marginal and small holdings (in hec)(i+ii)
1,36,392 (75%)
iv)
Medium and large holdings (in hec)
44,829 (25%)
Average size of holdings
Total number holding (in nos)
3,01,027
Total operated area (in hec)
1,81,221
Average size of holdings (in hec)
0.60
Source: - Revenue Department, Tripura

Measuring of field under Crop Cutting Experiment in Paddy

Perspective Plan for agriculture

The Perspective Plan for achieving self sufficiency in foodgrains production has been implemented in the state since 2000-01. The plan was further reviewed in 2010 and extended for two more years up to 2011-12. The measures envisaged under the plan includes increasing the area under kharif and rabi paddy; introduction of hybrid paddy and maize; bringing one lakh hectares under the SRI cultivation of paddy; promoting short duration HYV varieties for increasing the cropping intensity; promoting the use of bio-fertilizer, micro nutrients and chemical fertilizers; increased flow of credit and need based crop specific training to farmers. The measures had been instrumental to increase the foodgrains production from 5.13 lakh tons before Perspective Plan to 7.30 lakh tons at the end of the plan and more than 2 lakh tons of additional rice has been produced in the State.

The gains in the Perspective Plan namely HYV seed production through registered growers, well accepted SRI method of cultivation, line sowing, seed replacement, varietal replacement, increased use of chemical fertilizers, popularizing use of bio-fertilizers, increase in irrigation sector among others. The increased credit flow is further intensified for maintaining the growth trends in production and productivity in the future days to come.

Road map for agricultural development

Based on the experience gained in implementation of Perspective Plan, a “Road Map” has been drawn up for the period 2013-14 to 2016-17 for the future development of agriculture in the state. The special thrust has been given for increasing production and productivity of the following crops under the said “Road Map”.
   Cereals:    Paddy, maize, nutri-cereals (foxtail millet, locally called as Kaon).
    Pulses:     Arhar, blackgram, cowpea, lentil, moong, field pea, soybean and rajmash.
   Oilseeds:   Rape and mustard, sesamum, groundnut and linseed.

Thrust has also been given for crop diversification through utilization of seasonal rice in fallow lands which at present accounts for about 1.44 lakh hectares. A protion of the total rice fallow lands (0.74 lakh hectares) has been targeted to be brought under cultivation with suitable cropping sequence.

Increase in production of food grains

There has been 6 percent increaae in food grains production during 2014-15 against the previous year. The production of food grains during 2014-15 was 7.68 lakh tons as against the 7.27 lakh tons in the previous year of 2013-14,  while the projected demand of food grains in 2014-15 was 8.79 lakh tons.

Increase in use of chemical fertilizers

Integrated Nutrient Management for maintaining sustainable production and to maintain soil health and fertility by using macro and micro nutrients blended with organic manures, vermicompost and bio-fertilizers is the key for increasing production of crops. Use of chemical fertilizers in the state has been increased to 58,432 MT in 2014-15 from the level of 46,000 MT in 2013-14, thereby observing an increase of 27 percent.

Increase in irrigation potential

An estimate was made by a team of experts of Central Water Commission and State Water Resources Department to ascertain the irrigable land in the state. It was primarily assessed that 1,17,000 hectares of land could be brought under assured irrigation availing feasible components of non-monsoon run-off and ground water storage, which may now likely to increase up to 1,78,000 hectares.

Irrigation infrastructure so far has been developed in the state through various projects which includes, lift irrigation, diversion, DTW, medium irrigation, shallow tube well, artesian well, tank, 5HP pumps etc, for covering 1.13 lakh hectares. Recent assessment of Central Ground Water Board has revealed that the overall exploitation of ground water in the state is about 10 percent of the total potential only. Agriculture Department has taken steps for tapping the ground water potential for irrigation purpose and accordingly, 1814 small bore deep tube wells have been installed till 2014-15.

Increase in flow of credit to agriculture

The scheme of Kisan Credit Card (KCC) has been started more than a decade ago with a coverage of 4.21 lakh farmers against the 4.90 lakh farm households, which is over 86 percent of the farm house holds. The coverage requires to be increased after taking into account farm households allotted with the land under Forest Right Act. Appropriate intervention from the Government of India is required for further increase in the credit flow to the agriculture and allied sector. The NABARD and other financial institutions are approached to extend more investment in agriculture sector as per RBI guidelines. In 2014-15, benefit of Kisan Credit Cards was extended to 1.47 lakh farmers with total credit disbursement of Rs. 977.28 crore.

Cropping pattern

The Cropping pattern in Tripura acquires typical character of hill agriculture in the North Eastern Region where two distinct and parallel farming system viz., (i) shifting cultivation or jhum in the hill slopes (ii) settle farming cultivation in the plains are in vogue. Rice is the pre-dominant crop in both the systems.

The State grows three seasonal rice crops viz. aush, aman and boro in the settled farming areas including wide range of food and non-food crops.
The below noted table reveals the cropping patterns in the State:

Crops
% to total Gross Cropped Area
2009-10 2010-11  2011-12
Paddy  54.5 55.8  56.3
Maize    0.43 0.7%  0.8
    Wheat  0.16 0.2 0.1
    Pulses  1.38 1.6 1.8
    Oil seeds 0.76 0.9 1.0
    Jute & mesta 0.27 0.3 0.3
    Cotton 0.22 0.2 0.2
    Sugarcane  0.19 0.2 0.2
    Horticultural crops (including vegetables, flowers, fruits,plantations & spices etc.)  20.98 20.0 20.4
   Tea  1.78 1.7 1.7
    Rubber  10.14 10.1 11.2
    Others(drug, narcotics, medicinal & minor non reporting crops) 9.17 8.3 6.0

The cropping pattern in the State depicts that about 60 percent area of gross cropped area accounts for food grain crops and 21 percent of under horticultural crops.

Land Use Statistics

The following Table depicts the Land Use Statistics of the State for the year 2013-14.

ITEMS
AREA ( in Ha)
Geographical area
10,49,169
Forest area
6,29,426
Land not available for agriculture use
1,45,389
Land under miscellaneous tree crops and groves not included in net area sown
11,695
Permanent pasture and other grazing land
1,345
Culturable waste land
3,020
Current fallow
1,495
Fallow Land other than current fallow
1,729
Net cropped area
2,55,070
Gross cropped area
4,74,498
Cropping intensity (%) 
186

Major achievement after implementation of Perspective Plan and Road Map

The following table shows the achievements of Perspective Plan and Road Map till 2014-15.

Components
Achievements
Before Perspective Plan
End of Perspective Plan
Before Road Map
During implementation of Road Map
1999-2000
2011-12
2012-13
2014-15 (P)
Production of food grains (Lakh tons)
5.13
7.30
7.25
7.68
HYV paddy seed replacement rate (%)
2.8
33
33
33
Per ha use of chemical fertilizer (Kg/Ha)
25
55
60
60
Area coverage under SRI method (Lakh hectares)
Not introduced
0.87
0.88
0.85
Area under assured irrigation (Lakh hectares) *
0.52
1.11
1.12
1.14
Kisan Credit Card (KCC) issued (Lakh Nos) #
Not introduced
1.15
1.27**
1.47 **
Cropping intensity (%)
169
185
186
189

P= Provisional, NA= Not Available.  * Source: - PWD (WR) Department  # Source: Lead Bank (UBI).  ** Crop & Trem Loan.

i) Production of food grains (in Lakhs Tons): The improvement in food grains production during the Perspective Plan period can be depicted in the following Table.

YEAR
REQUIREMENT
FOOD GRAINS PRODUCTION
GAP
2004-05
7.66
6.12
1.54
2005-06
7.77
6.14
1.63
2006-07
7.88
6.30
1.58
2007-08
8.00
6.49
1.51
2008-09
8.12
6.35
1.77
2009-10
8.22
6.48
1.74
2010-11
8.44
7.12
1.32
2011-12
8.56
7.30
1.26
2012-13
8.54
7.25
1.29
2013-14
8.66
7.27
1.39
2014-15
8.79
7.68
1.11

iii) Crop diversification: As a part of crop diversification, State Government has given special thrust for increasing area and production of pulses and oilseeds in the State since pulses and oilseed policies have been adopted, separately.
Approach and strategy for increasing pulses and oilseed cultivation:

i) Bringing additional area under cropping systems,

ii) Increased production and productivity,

iii) Area based approach,

iv) Crop specific approach,

v) Seed village approach,

vi) Processing,

vii) Front line demonstration/ Block demonstrations,

viii) Oil seed production shall be increased by increasing the area through inclusion in cropping sequence once in a year,

ix) Adopting high productivity and high oil content varieties can also increase production,

x) Emphasis should be given on problem-oriented research,

xi) 50-100 percent seed replacement of high yielding improved varieties of oilseeds,

xii) More area to be brought under irrigation,

xiii) Use of organic manure and chemical fertilizer,

xiv) Easy credit flow to oil seed cultivators,

xv) Training and re-training of farmers as well as field personals.

Use of Fertilizer
The distribution of chemical fertilizers as well as use of chemical fertilizers are depicted during the years 2006-07 to 2013-14 in following Table.

COMPONENTS
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Distribution of Chemical Fertilizer (MT)
34,347
35,133
37,410
45,994
54,287
52,070
46000
Per Ha. use of chemical fertilizer (KG/Ha)
38
41.5
39
44
55
60
60
Source:- Agriculture Department, Tripura.

The following Table shows the bio-fertiliser production in the State during 2006-07 to 2013-14.

COMPONENTS
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Distribution of Chemical Fertilizer (MT)
31.55
16.93
258
1069
1500
859
1116
Source:- Agriculture Department, Tripura.

Integrated Pest Management

Sole reliance on chemical pesticides and their indiscriminate and unilateral use as plant protection tool invokes three 'r' (resurgence, resistance and residue) problems resulting in environment and human poisoning. Crop protection measure ought to be such that there is pest residue but no pesticide residue, which will help in maintaining the natural enemies of the pests in a balance State. One State bio-control laboratory was set up in 2001 for mass production of bio-agents for their field application. The products of State bio-control laboratory are now a days popular among the farmers with brand name of 'TRIP' (viz. TRIP TV, TRIP TH, TRIP FLURO, TRIP BACIL, TRIP GRAMMA, AND TRIP GREEN).

Marketing and quality control

It is an established fact that if quality of the product is not ensured, cultivators cannot fetch good remunerative of their produces. Quality of produce is the pre-condition for proper marketing of their products. Moreover, post harvest technology is also a pre-condition to get a remunerative price, in addition. Untill marketing networks are not improved from villages where production of agricultural crops are initially made by the cultivators upto the level of wholesale markets and from whole sale markets to the retail markets; the cultivators may not get remunerative price and naturally, they may lose interest to cultivate the crops. It is, therefore, imperative that both qualities of farm produces as well as marketing facility are required to be improved for the betterment of the farmer's community of State.

The market development work for the years 2009-10 to 2013-14 are presented in the following Table.

ITEMS
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Micro management, Nos.
13
15
NA
Nil
40
State Plan, Nos.
30
10
NA
NIL
--

Rastriya Krishi Bhima Yojana (RKBY)

The following Table depicts the status of RKBY in Tripura during the years 2002-03 to 2012-13.

Status of RKBY

  
Year
No. of Farmers
Area in Ha
Premium subsidy
Farmers Claims Settled
Amount(In Rs)
2002-03
1188
739.27
22710.70
271
331245.75
2003-04
1005
489.94
17431.96
215
366493.97
2004-05
1916
1223.37
66128.91
322
384538.86
2005-06
2651
1771.81
87258.52
1460
3615935.31
2006-07
2402
1718.99
100830.45
9
4329.08
2007-08
1867
828.02 
67052.53
557155.13
2008-09
4118
2656.05
197248.35
620
564120.60
2009-10*
413
452.12
58100.00
9
7931.00
2010-11
1488
872.07
53786.34
0
0.0
Source: - Agriculture Department, Tripura.

* Only Rabi Crops.

Training to Farmers

During the period of Perspective Plan, farmers were trained on various agricultural technologies within the state as well as outside. The State Agriculture Department has organized the State Level Krishi Mela, felicitated a number of farmers by celebrating Krishak Sanman Diwas as well as organised the international rice seminar. Many intellectual giants and policy planners, including Prof. M.S. Swaminathan participated in the various seminars in the State.  The year wise position is shown in the following Table.

Components
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Farmers' Trained (nos.)
70000
70000
53000
55000
75000
86560
69721
Source: - Agriculture Department, Tripura.

Cold Storage

In 2014-15, there are 10 cold storages are functioning in the state with capacity of 26,700 MT.  Out of these, 7 cold storages with total capacity of 11,700 MT are functioning under the control of the State Agriculture Department and 3 more cold storages at Kashipur (Sherowali), Bamutia and Haplong with additional capacity of 15,000 MT are run by the private agencies.

The details of those cold storages of the Agriculture Department are shown below.

1.
Satchand cold storage
- 1000 MT
2.
Baikhora cold storage
- 2000 MT
3.
Belonia cold storage
- 1700 MT
4.
Amarpur cold storage
- 1000 MT
5.
Melaghar cold storage
- 3500 MT
6.
Teliamura cold storage
- 500 MT
7.
Kumarghat cold storage
- 2000 MT
Total:
- 11700 MT

Farm Mechanization

Apart from inputs, agricultural machineries like power tillers, paddy reapers, paddy transplanters etc. also are being distributed at subsidy to the farmers of the State.

The year-wise position is shown in the following Table.
Agricultural machinaries

Implements
 2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12
2012-13
2013-14
Power Tiller distribution
201
373
1281
1000
1000
950
Source: - Agriculture Department, Tripura.

*including SRI marker.

Area, production & yield of crops, 2013-14

The area, production and yield of crops for the year 2013-14 (P) is depicted in the following Table.

Crops
Area in Ha
Production in MT
Yield in Kg/Ha
Aush
31648
81652
2580
Aman
146314
439674
3005
Jhum
19540
20517
1050
Total Kharif Rice
197502
541843
274
Boro
56752
169988
2995
Total Rice
254254
711831
2800
Kharif Maize
4549
5805
1276
Rabi Maize
40
58
1450
Wheat
150
300
2000
Total Kharif Pulses(incl.Arhar)
7580
5154
680


Total Rabi Pules
4570
3542
775
Total Pulses (Kharif +Rabi)
12150
8696
716
Total Food grains
271143
726690
2680
Sesasum
2424
1706
604
Kharif Ground nut
262
284
1084
Total Kharif Oilseed
3086
1990
645
Rape & Mustard
2617
2159
825
Rabi Groundnut
351
441
1256
Flax seed
13
6
462
Soyabean
19
17
895
Total Rabi Oilseed
3000
2623
874
Total Oilseed (Kharif +Rabi)
6086
4613
758
Jute*
643
5369
8.35
Mesta*
854
7003
8.20
Total Jute & Mesta
1497
12372
8.26
Cotton**
949
1395
1.4
Sugarcane**
964
49598
51450

*   indicates production in bales of 180 kg each.
** indicates production in bales of 170 kg each.

Rainfall
The state is a high rainfall zone with the incidence of very high concentration of rainfall (up to 450 mm per day) in the monsoon season, which lasts from June to September. The average annual rainfall in the state is 2024.4 mm (50 years average). Maximum rainfall is generally received in the months of July to September. Intermittent rainfall is received round the year, but the pattern of rainfall throughout the year is not homogenous.
The following Table depicts the rainfall by month during 2006 to 2013 in the State.
Rainfall pattern (mm)

MONTH
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
January
36.3
0.0
0.0
3.6
14
0.0
February
13.0
2.4
14.5
3.7
9.5
3.4
March
41.6
21.9
79.9
70.5
14.8
6.4
April
53.1
138.3
168.9
58.3
270.2
85.2
May
218.5
366.7
448.1
398.0
178.9
637.2
June
324.3
239.9
438.5
404.7
493.4
256.1
July
321.2
442.1
234.0
245.1
243.1
232.1
August
385.5
381.2
278.4
381.8
301.7
325.2
September
174.1
222.2
237.9
239.8
165.6
262.0
October
237.2
147.1
268.9
56.3
159.2
144.2
November
0.0
0.0
2.0
0.0
31.1
0.0
December
0.0
0.0
17.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
Annual Rainfall
1804.8
1961.8
2188.6
1861.6
1881.3
1952.5
Source: - Agriculture Department, Tripura.

Youth in agriculture

Involvement of youth in agriculture would be facilitated through entrepreneurship development programme, entrusting more and more integrated farming system to combine agriculture / horticulture/animal resources/fisheries as well as the RD programmes are needed to extend proper training programmes, encouraging them to adopt modalities and packages in the line of rehabilitation of the returnees. This would include areas of input management, post-harvest management outside the farms, value addition approach to the produce etc.

Women in agriculture

Empowerment of women is being promoted through formation of Self-Help Groups (SHGs). Estimation of kitchen gardens, backyard farming, ensuring at least two fruits plant per family, participation in minor field operations (transplanting and  harvesting), post-harvest management outside the farm, processing of agricultural produce like turmeric, ginger, chilly, jute, bamboo for various practices including incense sticks, coconut husk dust for growing orchids, mushroom cultivation, vermin-compost preparation, feeding milching cattle, feeding fish in the ponds and various other operations through training programmes, to update their knowledge about farm technology, human hygiene and animal nutrition. Other plausible ventures are homestead farm of rabbits, mushroom cultivation, Cashew-nut processing through the SHGs etc. A convergence of SLNA, ATMA, Technology Mission, RKVY, RD and Forestry through regular interface at the District and State level will open-up the scope of attaining new avenues, avoid unnecessary duplication, and strengthen throughout the year in all the 554 agricultural markets. Bulk of the local produce namely viz. brinjal, squash, betel-vine, radish, coal corps etc. are grown in abundance and import of some of the vegetables from outside the State has been gradually minimized. A programme for production of pulses development would definitely contribute towards increase of consumption of vegetable protein which helped in increasing the biological value of protein when taken in combination with cereals. This would provide protection against any mal-nutrition and protein deficiency. Emphasis has been laid on expansion of area not only under fruits but also on root crops including carrot and pulses. Water-shed development will also be largely supportive to fodder development and development of duckery, poultry and other animals.

Irrigation

Agriculture is the main stay of the economy of Tripura. Irrigation is an important input for enhancing the productivity of the agricultural sector. To meet up growing demand of the increased population in the state, the need of irrigation has became obvious. Irrigation sector accordingly got priority in development during ninth plan onwards. The area covered under irrigation till 1972 was only 1956 hectare, which rose to 40383 hectare at the end of March, 1998. The pace of development was accelerated since then and by now coverage has been raised upto  1,12,806 hectare the end of March, 2014. It is estimated that the state has an area under paddy and horticultural crops for 1,78,000 hectare. This quantum of land is immediately visualized for irrigation need. Tripura state in the North Eastern Region of India has a total land area of 10,492 sq.km. The climate condition and the soft soil everywhere in the state is favorable for cultivation of wide range of crops especially the horticultural crops. Amid the undulating terrain, the land under cultivation in the state as per current survey conducted by the State Agriculture Department of the state is 2,55,241 hectare, which is 24.33 percent of the State's total area. The majority of the inhabitants and their agricultural activities are confined to the interspersed plain lands. Although 60 percent of the State population is dependent on it, the primary sector contributes about 25 percent of the State's GSDP. The average land holding in the state is 0.97 hectare and farmers are dominantly small and marginal.

One of the principal objectives of the Government of Tripura is to extend assured irrigation to agricultural land. Apart from ensuring coverage of more cultivable land under assured irrigation, the aim is to increase cropping intensity, thereby optimizing the utilization of the limited land resource for improvement of the socio-economic condition of rural masses.

There is no major irrigation project in Tripura. The Gomati, Khowai and Manu are the three medium irrigation projects in the State. The work of the Khowai Medium irrigation project is completed except some residual works. The progress has been made in Gomati and Manu medium irrigation projects inspite of problems of land for construction. The major source of irrigation is Minor irrigation projects like lift irrigation, deep tube wells, diversion schemes, shallow tube wells, 5 HP pumps, water harvesting structures, tanks etc.

The irrigation programmes of the State is being jointly implemented by the Public Works Department (Water Resources), Rural Development Department (RDD), Agriculture Department, Forest Department and the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTAADC). Nearly all the minor irrigation projects have been handed over to Gaon Panchayats/ Panchayat Development Committees for better operations, maintenance and upkeep.

The Government is implementing an action plan to expand irrigation coverage up to 1,40,383 hectare in near future.
Tripura is a small State in the North East has a total cultivable land of 2,55,241 ha. and irrigation potential of 1,40,383 ha.